Poker Bot Pluribus AI Pertama yang Mengalahkan Manusia di Multiplayer No-Limit Hold’em

Dalam, bot poker bernama Libratus yang dikembangkan oleh para peneliti di Carnegie Melon University CMU yang dipimpin oleh Profesor Tuomas Sandholm dan Ph.D. Pelajar Noam Brown, mengalahkan beberapa pemain poker terbaik di dunia di Texas, menahan mereka atas ukuran sampel yang besar. Kemajuan itu dianggap sebagai tonggak sejarah pada saat itu, tetapi penerapannya terbatas karena tugas biner mengalahkan hanya satu lawan pada suatu waktu – dalam permainan head-up.

Bot poker terbaru yang dikembangkan oleh para peneliti yang sama dalam proyek bersama antara AI dan CMU mampu melakukan sesuatu yang tidak pernah dicapai oleh AI lain – mengalahkan beberapa pemain kuat dalam permainan informasi yang tidak lengkap tanpa batas yang menahan mereka dalam format enam tangan , dan itu melakukannya lebih efisien daripada bot poker lain yang terdokumentasi sebelumnya.

Michael Gagliano: “Ada beberapa permainan yang manusia sama sekali tidak membuat, terutama yang berkaitan dengan ukuran taruhannya.”

Pluribus, demikian bot itu disebut, adalah superkomputer terbaru untuk menjatuhkan pro poker, hasil proyek tersebut memiliki implikasi besar pada bidang AI dan konteks informasi yang tidak lengkap, serta aplikasi potensial untuk pemain poker – beberapa menarik dan beberapa firasat.

Pluribus Beats the Poker Pro

Poker telah lama digunakan sebagai masalah tantangan dalam penelitian AI karena, seperti yang dijelaskan Brown dan Sandholm dalam makalah ilmiah terbaru mereka, Superhuman AI untuk poker multipemain yang diterbitkan di Science Magazine, Tidak ada permainan rekreasi populer yang menangkap tantangan informasi tersembunyi secara efektif dan sebagai elegan sebagai poker.

Namun sampai sekarang, tidak ada bot yang mampu mengalahkan pemain manusia dengan andal dalam format multi-pemain, seperti cara poker dimainkan. Pluribus dirancang untuk NLHE enam-max dan mengambil beberapa pemain poker top, semua dengan hasil enam-max yang sukses dan lebih dari $ juta dalam pendapatan.

Dua percobaan terpisah dilakukan dengan Pluribus, satu menggunakan lima manusia dan satu format AI HAI dan yang lain menguji satu manusia terhadap lima AI H + AI, di mana lima salinan Pluribus saling bermain dan satu pemain manusia, tetapi tidak dapat berkolusi atau berkolusi. berkomunikasi dengan cara apa pun. Dalam kedua percobaan, bot ditemukan memiliki tingkat kemenangan yang dapat diandalkan secara signifikan atas pemain manusia.

Jason Les: “Ini adalah monster monster absolut. Saya akan mengatakan ini adalah bluffer yang jauh lebih efisien daripada kebanyakan manusia.

Dalam percobaan HAI, ada, tangan poker dimainkan selama berhari-hari. Setiap hari, lima pemain berikut berpartisipasi: Jimmy Chou, Seth Davies, Michael Gagliano, Anthony Gregg, Dong Kim, Jason Les, Linus Loeliger, Daniel McAulay, Greg Merson, Nick Petrangelo, Sean Ruane, Trevor Savage, dan Jacob Toole.

Sementara nama asli tidak diungkapkan kepada pemain, mereka semua memiliki alias sehingga mereka dapat melacak kecenderungan pemain lain selama percobaan. Para pemain juga bermain untuk mendapat bagian dari $, yang akan didistribusikan berdasarkan kinerja. Dalam format HAI, Pluribus menunjukkan tingkat kemenangan mbbgame dengan kesalahan standar mbbgame dengan mbb mewakili tirai mili-big. Dalam percobaan H + AI, Elias dan Ferguson masing-masing bermain, melawan lima salinan Pluribus, dan bot menang dengan kecepatan mbbgame dengan kesalahan standar mbbgame.

Secara keseluruhan, bot mengalahkan manusia hingga sekitar $ per tangan dan hampir $, jam, menurut posting blog AI Brown.

Desain dan Strategi Bot

Libratus dirancang untuk permainan kepala-up, permainan zero-sum di mana satu pemain menang dan satu pemain kalah. Untuk alasan ini, algoritmanya dirancang untuk menghitung perkiraan strategi keseimbangan Nash sebelum bermain. Apa yang membuat bot lebih sulit dikalahkan, adalah dua modul utama yang dimiliki bot dalam algoritmanya, yaitu penyelesaian subgame saat bermain dan menyesuaikan strategi untuk lebih mendekati keseimbangan berdasarkan pada lubang atau eksploitasi yang akan ditemukan lawannya selama permainan berlangsung. Hasilnya adalah bahwa Libratus memiliki strategi yang seimbang dan strategi campuran yang dijalankan dengan sempurna yang menyulitkan manusia untuk bermain melawan.

Strategi Pluribus sebagian besar dihitung dengan bermain sendiri, yang berarti ia mengembangkan strategi intinya berdasarkan bermain salinan dirinya sendiri daripada mendasarkannya pada input dari tangan yang dimainkan oleh manusia atau AI lain. Dalam makalah mereka, Brown dan Sandholm menjelaskan proses ini sebagai berikut: AI mulai dari awal dengan bermain secara acak, dan secara bertahap membaik ketika menentukan tindakan mana, dan distribusi probabilitas mana atas tindakan tersebut, menghasilkan hasil yang lebih baik terhadap versi strategi yang lebih awal.

AI mulai dari awal dengan bermain secara acak, dan secara bertahap membaik ketika menentukan tindakan mana, dan distribusi probabilitas mana atas tindakan tersebut, mengarah pada hasil yang lebih baik terhadap versi strategi yang sebelumnya.

Strategi offline ini disebut sebagai strategi cetak biru dan didasarkan pada suatu bentuk minimisasi penyesalan kontrafaktual CFR – sebuah algoritma bermain-sendiri berulang – yang telah digunakan dalam AI sebelumnya untuk sejumlah game kompetitif satu-satu. Pluribus secara khusus mengikuti jenis CFR Monte Carlo, yang semuanya

Source: agen poker online

20 Minutes With: Baccarat Hotel’s Tea Sommelier Gabrielle Jammal

Tea is in Gabrielle Jammal’s bloodline. “I think I had tea out of the womb,” she says. “I don’t drink coffee, and I didn’t have it until I was .”

Though the -year-old tea sommelier grew up in New Jersey, Jammal’s British mother and grandparents made sure she took part in their daily teatime when she was a little girl. Jammal says of her family ritual, “at o’clock, you sit down, you have tea and sandwiches, and that’s how it is.”

These childhood experiences ignited a passion that took Jammal down a path to becoming New York’s only tea sommelier at the Baccarat Hotel s Grand Salon.

Jammal spoke with Penta about the evolving culture of afternoon tea, her role at the opulent Baccarat Hotel, and what she’s been sipping most recently.

PENTA : I think afternoon tea used to be considered a stuffy, old-fashioned event in New York. How has the concept evolved?

Gabrielle Jammal: I really hope that we’re the ones modernizing it. I wanted to work here to make it more modern and fun and have educational notes. Also, we ve been fortunate enough to be blessed with this really beautiful space.

We do some beautiful fashion prive afternoon teas; for example, we partnered with Ines di Santo—she did her bridal spring fashion show and she had about people come and everyone had afternoon tea. They were all seated enjoying it and we had the models walk down the runway here in the Grand Salon during tea. We try to do one a month and then we do special teas—we did a Royal Wedding-themed “Tale of Two Cities” afternoon tea.

We wanted to add to the story of Baccarat. On the menu, all of Personnages du Thé notable people after whom the afternoon tea services are named, they’re all clients past of Baccarat. They’re all part of the lineage, the story that is of our company that’s years old. The idea is you come in and be royalty for the afternoon. Each service is curated according to who the Personnages were and their lives.

How do restaurants and hotels distinguish themselves in the afternoon tea scene?

For us, we re lucky to have this amazing story. Everything in the hotel is really well thought out, even to the smallest details. The library here has one book for every year of the company, so years starting with , and they’re all white but the year we opened, , is red because red is our trademark color.

They’re all blank because the idea is that you leave your memories with us and come back over and over again and share in our story., I’m lucky to have that to work with and really work closely with the kitchen and curate those experiences for people and really make celebratory events special and beautiful.

When I was a little girl playing tea party—this is like having the most glamorous grownup version, I think, that is possible. I have an amazing supportive team here and my boss lets me be creative. We’re working on the next Personnages du Thé, the emperor of Japan, the fifth and final. He’s from the late s.

How involved are you in the food menu?

I curate the menus with the kitchen along with the teas. The Sultan Abdulaziz, for example, is my favorite. It took us about two years to get that on the menu. It was really special to me because I’m half Middle Eastern, so I was researching him—he was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire—and working on different flavors of the Middle East for everyone to enjoy. It’s not traditional in any way, shape, or form, but he’s become really popular.   

Baccarat Hotel tea sommelier Gabrielle Jammal. Baccarat Hotel

How do you source your teas?

I’m carrying five different tea companies, which is quite unheard of, because normally people only have one. For me, I really wanted to have high-grade, high-quality teas and have it be more like farm-to-table.

For single-origin tea, companies have relationships with farms and estates and they know as much information as possible. I wanted to curate it like a wine list. A lot are single origin and when they’re blended, I have it labeled as blended and they’re naturally flavored or scented. Our raspberry mimosa tea, for example, is a raspberry green tea with freeze-dried raspberry and citrus peel.

I think it’s better to bring in other things that are fresh and not sitting so long and I wanted to be revolving and rotating. I took chamomile off the menu because you can have that anywhere in the world. I spent eight months researching different tisane and herbal teas, so I have about six different tisane blends and pure whole leaf or whole flower teas that are similar. It’s also about education. I want it to be a learning experience for people as well.

How do you get to educate your customers?

I talk to people all day, every day. But we also do a pairing series I started last year. We’ve done Champagne and tea pairing dinners and lunches and whiskey and scotch pairings with tea as well. I want it to be like a masterclass with food and have it be really relatable. With whiskey or Champagne, people can relate more easily and start thinking about tea in the same way.

How did you end up becoming a tea sommelier?

It was kind of by accident. I started working with tea or years ago with Teavana and it opened my eyes to the whole world that is tea. Tea is the second most widely consumed beverage in the world after water. You can never know everything about tea, so I kept researching on my own, so when Baccarat told me they were looking for someone to head their program and this was their story, I think my brain exploded because I thought, “That is the most awesome, amazing thing ever.”

I became a tea sommelier three years ago with the International Tea Masters Association. The certification is great, but I think it’s more about the flexibility and having the humility to continue learning.

What does becoming a tea sommelier entail?

I drank a lot of tea. I was in class the other day where there were teas. It’s knowing processing methods, different teas, blended teas, how teas are made in different countries, different styles and regions. I think it’s also assessing the flavors of them and for me, working with food, how I can work those into the menus or being able to do pairing dinners. We’ve been blessed to do some great tea-infused cocktails as well.

Where has your job taken you?

I was just in London. I’ve also been to Scotland—there’s a woman there growing tea who has a tea factory. I was in Japan last year as well, at Ippodo Tea Co., where we source our matcha. They’re kind of like the Baccarat of matcha. I was there last year for the second matcha harvest in Kyoto.

What’s your favorite tea right now?

That’s such a hard question. I love oolong teas. I think they’re so interesting and complex. I think the range is so varied. They really can range and be a light, floral, green tea-style tea to something roasted over charcoal and really dark, nutty, and a little smoky. There’s a whole rainbow of oolong tea.

Do you have a favorite place of origin for tea?

I want to say Taiwan, because they’re doing a lot of really beautiful oolongs. There’s a really amazing tea called oriental beauty from Taiwan and it’s really special because there’s a little jassid—it’s like a little grasshopper—that bites the leaves when the tea leaves grow and the chemical reaction causes the tea to have almost floral, rosy notes that are very different compared to any other tea. It’s really difficult to find a pure, high-grade oriental beauty. It’s beautiful—they call it five-color tea or Champagne tea. It’s red, purple, green silver—it’s the most exquisite, beautiful tea you’ve ever seen.

The teas coming out of Nepal are just mind-blowing. They’re growing every kind of tea: white, black, green, oolong—they’re just on another level. One of the classes I took was a Nepalese tea class and I was freaking out because they were amazing, so good. I’m trying to figure out how to get a Nepalese tea on our menu.

What’s a common misconception people have about tea?

A big one, I think, is people say they don’t like green tea and I think because green tea is really temperamental depending on the way you brew it—the time, temperature, and the type of water you use—it can go really bitter really fast or almost sour.

People are not educated all the time on it and they don t know that, for example, Chinese and Japanese teas are so different and the taste is so different. I used to have a Japanes green tea on the menu and the style we’re serving—British style—it just wasn’t working and I changed it to a Chinese green tea and people love it. It’s seeing what teas work better for what we’re doing.

Source: bandar agen judi bola

Baccarat drives Vegas Strip’s 18pct rise in casino win

Baccarat drove the percent year-on-year rise in casino win on the Las Vegas Strip pictured in the Nevada, United States, gaming hub, according to official data published on Tuesday.

Baccarat is a casino table game favoured by players of Asian heritage wherever they settle or travel in the world according to investment analysts.

Data posted online by the Nevada Gaming Control Board indicated that “win” in games of baccarat during the month rose to almost US$. million, jumping by . percent. ‘Win’ in Las Vegas parlance is the amount players bet, minus the money that is paid out by the house in player prizes, according to the University of Nevada, Las Vegas .

“The highest baccarat hold . percent since drove the outsized growth” in Las Vegas Strip win, noted Deutsche Bank Securities ’s Carlo Santarelli and Steven Pizzella, referring to the performance of the house relative to the performance of the players.

The brokerage also noted in its Tuesday memo that had baccarat been excluded, the Las Vegas Strip table drop – the amount of money exchanged for gaming chips at the table – would have fallen . percent in June. Thanks to baccarat business, it actually rose . percent.

The Nevada regulator said total June casino win on the Las Vegas Strip – including from the main supplier of earnings in that market, slot machines – rose to just under US$. million, or slightly shy of . percent more than a year earlier.

The data indicated that in the entire state of Nevada, casino win rose to over US$. billion in June, . percent more than a year earlier.

Betting on online casino games and sportsbooks is a multi-billion dollar worldwide industry. The growth of internet gambling and online casinos has fueled the pocketbooks for i-Gambling sites to reinvest profits and create more than , Internet casinos which are now available for real money casino betting over the Internet.

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Source: judi poker online

Pasang taruhan Anda: Judi olahraga legal tiba di New York

NICHOLS – Francis Melia beringsut ke dalam FanDuel Sportsbook yang berkilauan pada Jumat malam di Tioga Downs Casino Resort, sebuah oasis berlistrik di bentangan pedesaan Tier Selatan di sepanjang perbatasan Pennsylvania, hanya beberapa menit berkendara dari rumahnya di luar Binghamton.

Pria yang berumur satu tahun itu mendorong pejalan kaki melewati jendela kaca buram yang menggambarkan permainan sepak bola, melintasi karpet biru tumpukan rendah dan menuju tepi layar TV yang luas, seekor ngengat terbakar. Dia menurunkan dirinya ke salah satu dari selusin kursi santai, depan dan tengah.

Melia mengatakan bahwa ia dulu secara ilegal bertaruh di sepakbola dan bola basket dengan bandar, karena memiliki uang di telepon membuat menonton pertandingan lebih menarik. Tetapi dia memutuskan untuk berhenti setelah menghabiskan hari yang indah di dalam ruangan, bersumpah di TV di bagian atas paru-parunya.

Sekarang, permainan bisbol musim panas tengah musim panas biasa berlangsung di atas monitor.

Dia adalah satu-satunya pelindung di ruangan itu, dan dia tidak bertaruh.

“Tunggu sampai sepak bola datang,” kata Melia. “Mereka akan dikerumuni, benar-benar dikerumuni. World Series, itu akan dikerumuni. Satu-satunya kelemahan adalah Anda harus berada di sini untuk bertaruh. Anda tidak dapat mengangkat telepon dan cukup meneleponnya. Tetapi fasilitasnya indah.

“Saya tidak bisa melewati layar ini yang saya lihat. Makarel suci! Orang-orang di layar itu mungkin sebesar jika mereka ada di sini dalam kehidupan. Dan lihatlah kursi-kursi ini. Mereka berkata, ‘Ayo! Ayo! ‘Mereka memanggilmu ke sini. Saya pikir ini adalah tambahan yang bagus. Tidak ada yang seperti ini di daerah ini. “

Taruhan olahraga yang disahkan telah datang ke New York, dengan dua kasino yang menawarkan para penjudi kesempatan untuk bertaruh pada acara-acara atletik, selain permainan kesempatan. Yang lain akan dibuka dalam beberapa minggu mendatang, satu bahkan lebih dekat ke Buffalo, meskipun masih belum jelas kapan orang mungkin membuka di daerah terdekat, sebagian besar berkat masalah hukum antara Negara Seneca dan Negara Bagian New York.

Tetapi kemungkinan besar baik bahwa New York Barat akhirnya akan dapat melakukan perjalanan singkat ke pusat kota Buffalo atau Niagara Falls untuk memiliki saham, hukum keuangan dalam drama atletik yang diputar di layar TV sebelum mereka.

Apakah mereka juga dapat melakukannya secara legal dari komputer atau telepon?

Keluarkan kinks

Sebelumnya pada hari Jumat, selama pembukaan resmi FanDuel Sportsbook di Tioga Downs, pemilik kasino multi-jutawan dan arena pacuan kuda Jeff Gural menyampaikan beberapa kata kepada sekelompok kecil wartawan dan lusinan penonton, banyak dari mereka mengenakan lencana karyawan, di lobi kasino .

Dia menggunakan gunting besar untuk memotong pita merah seremonial, ketika Tioga Downs menjadi Sportsbook legal kedua yang dibuka di New York, beberapa hari setelah Rivers Casino & Resort di Schenectady.

Noah Kirk, kiri, asisten manajer di FanDuel, menunjukkan Paul Goldsholl, dari Owego, bagaimana menggunakan terminal taruhan swalayan selama pembukaan FanDuel, buku olahraga resmi pertama Negara Bagian New York, di Tioga Downs Casino Resort di Nichols, NY , Jumat, Juli, .Heather AinsworthKhusus untuk Berita

“Sangat penting untuk mengeluarkan ketegaran sekarang, sementara itu cukup sepi,” kata Gural, yang juga memiliki Arena Balap Meadowlands di New Jersey, perjalanan singkat dari New York City dan rumah sportsbook pertama FanDuel. “Terutama baseball, tenis, golf. Sementara begitu sepak bola dimulai, Anda memiliki orang-orang yang datang yang akan bertaruh pada sepak bola perguruan tinggi, sepak bola pro, baseball, dan kemudian sebelum Anda menyadarinya, Anda telah mendapatkan NBA dan bola basket kampus. Anda memasuki akhir musim gugur, awal musim dingin, ada banyak hal yang terjadi.

“Saat ini, Anda membiarkan kasir membasahi kaki mereka dan pelanggan kami mencari tahu cara kerjanya. Ini waktu yang tepat untuk membuka, sungguh. “

Anggota Majelis Donna Lupardo menempatkan taruhan seremonial pertama.

New York adalah negara bagian yang menawarkan perjudian olahraga legal, mengambil keuntungan dari keputusan Mahkamah Agung A.S. untuk menjatuhkan hukum federal yang pada dasarnya melarang taruhan di luar Nevada. Undang-undang negara bagian sebelumnya membuka pintu untuk sportsbook di empat kasino komersial dan tujuh kasino India.

Tetapi karena perjudian olahraga online tetap ilegal di New York, taruhan harus dilakukan sendiri, seperti yang dicatat Melia, jelas tidak nyaman, mengingat lokasi pedesaan dari buku olah raga dan alternatif legal dan terlarang.

Pertaruhan olahraga online legal di New Jersey – di mana volume perjudian olahraga untuk pertama kalinya bulan lalu melampaui Nevada untuk memimpin negara – dan hanya beberapa mil di ujung jalan dari Tioga Downs di Pennsylvania.

Sportsbook dan perjudian olahraga online juga legal di Kanada.

“Saya pikir keuntungan di sini akan jauh lebih besar jika kita bisa melakukannya secara online,” kata Joe Gennett, dari Endicott yang berdekatan, yang bersama dengan istrinya adalah seorang reguler di Tioga Downs. “Ini masalahnya: Banyak orang, suka atau tidak suka, memiliki bandar judi. Jika saya memiliki bandar judi dan saya duduk di rumah, saya bisa menelepon dan berkata, “Hei, beri $ pada ini-dan-itu.” Bandar judi mengawasi Anda. Anda mungkin tidak bertemu satu sama lain selama sebulan. Tapi mereka bandar judi, paling baik.

Source: bandar agen judi bola